Wednesday, July 31, 2019

History of Public Health Systems Essay

Public Health is about helping everyone to stay healthy rather than focusing specifically on the individual, with the aim to promote health, protecting individuals from threats to their health and preventing ill-health. Public health policies have made a significant impact in increasing a person’s overall life expectancy and improving health. (Public Health) Public Health Strategies: Public health strategies are devised in order to prevent the spread of diseases, prolong life and promote health. This can be done through the use of monitoring, identifying, developing programmes etc. Monitoring the health status of the community – Is a key aspect of health strategies that are in place within the UK. This health strategy helps to monitor any changes that occur in the health of the population, along with alerting individuals to any potential problems. Health throughout the UK is monitored by quality of life, infant mortality rates and life expectancy (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 2) The monitoring of health throughout the country allows for advanced planning of local services within the community that may be at risk of certain health problems. The monitoring of health at a local level allows for information to be recorded before being compared to the health of other communities across the country. Local information on health is an important aspect as it is collected on a geographical basis throughout the UK, for example vaccination rates, hospital admissions etc. This is one way on health can be monitored, as in the cases of other communities they may have higher incidence rates of certain diseases whereas others may have low incidences of diseases. Communities that have a higher rate of disease are monitored further and health promotion campaigns will be developed before being put into effect in order to reduce the risk of disease spreading within the community. The health status of a community can vary throughout the nation and depend on a variety of factors, of which can include: Age Gender Socio-economic conditions Genetics Environmental factors Through the use of monitoring health changes any problems that may arise in the future within communities can be identified in advance in order for it to be prevented. For example the rise of sexually transmitted diseases within local communities would monitored in order to predict any potential problems that may occur in the future and stop them from taking place. Identifying the health needs of the population – The health of the nation is measured by using mortality and morbidity rates of which have indicated how people are now living longer than that of their predecessors. Identifying the health needs of the population is another important aspect of public health strategies within the UK; this takes place when trends and patterns in local communities across the nation are established. By identifying the health needs of individuals located in a particular community means that the need for services can therefore be identified. Patterns can be detected throughout the country through the use of national statistics. National statistics are used in order to determine how health can be improved and how areas of concern can be highlighted, along with the effects of ill health may be reduced and prevented. Patterns of illness and disease can possibly be the result of certain factors, of which include; genetics, environment, lifestyle, education etc. However some parts of the country may be more susceptible to certain illnesses and diseases than others due to the patterns that are outlined by the National Statistics and social trends information. Developing programmes to reduce risk and screen for early disease – ‘Screening is the process of identifying apparently healthy people who may be at increased risk of a disease or condition. They can then be offered information, further tests and appropriate treatment to reduce their risk and/or any complications arising from the disease or  condition.’ As defined by the UK National Screening Committee (UK NSC). Health programmes are developed based on the information gathered by epidemiologists. ‘An epidemiologist is a person who studies patterns of diseases or health risks in population groups, societies, and cultures.’ The Department of Health produces a green paper that proposes what the targets of health should be; and is based on these decisions as to how the government implement the findings. From this a white paper is produced, of which goes into detail as to how and what course of action is taken. An example of recent white papers can include ‘Our Healthy Nation’ and ‘Our Healthier Nation ‘ (1999). The aim of the white paper is to inform and protect members of the public by influencing social changes in regards to the health of the nation. (L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 4). Examples of current public health programmes include: Five a day campaign, MMR immunisation programme and the Local NHS Smoking Service. Controlling communicable disease – Controlling communicable diseases is an important aspect of public health strategies in the UK, of which ‘involves planning to include screening and early detection, isolation and treatment, containment, prevention and cure eradication where possible’. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 7) The early detection of a disease can prove useful, as it can provide insight on the cause and the spread of the disease along with being able to highlight any potential risks that the disease may cause to an individual or group of people; especially in vulnerable people such as young children, and the elderly. Young children and the elderly are more susceptible to disease due to their immune system being much weaker than the average individual; therefore it is important in the early detection of an infection in order to stop this from occurring. Isolating individuals with communicable diseases enables to remain controlled, in order to reduce and prevent the risk of spreading the disease. A resident residing in a care home that was diagnosed with tuberculosis for example, would be moved to a room on their own, in order to ensure that the disease is not then passed to another service user within  the home is one example. Containing a disease can occur at a national and local level; this can occur once the source of the infection has been identified and plan has been developed and put in place in order to reduce the risk of the disease reoccurring. The measures that are taken in which to contain the disease can vary from short, medium, to long term measures. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 7) Short term measures – limited visiting, unnecessary travel, treatment and isolation Medium/long term measures – immunisation programme, appropriate medical treatment, educating individuals about the risks, eradicating incidence of disease where it proves possible to do so Eradicating disease is now becoming possible due to advances in research and technology. Advances in technology means that more is known about the causes of illness and disease along with how the disease is spread. This advance has been made possible through the use of early detection and surveillance, monitoring, screening, treatment and immunisation programmes, health education and promotion. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 8) Promote the health of the population – Health promoters are tasked with the promoting the health of the population on a local and national scale. Health promoters are based in a variety of settings, such as, GP surgeries, drop-in centres, radio, magazines and schools. They are prioritised on local need and the availability of funding for the necessary resources. These priorities can be identified through the number of reported illnesses and diseases through local statistics. Any illnesses or diseases taken from the statistics prove to be either life threatening or cause an individual to spend a substantial amount of time in hospital would then be given top priority in the promoting of health. Individuals who may be overweight can potentially be at risk of coronary heart disease later on in life. The health promoter would thereby ensure that diets and exercise are promoted through the use of proper channel on both a local and national level. Planning and evaluating the national provision of health and social care – The National provision of Health and Social care within the UK is planned and evaluated by the National Health Service and Social Services. This is based on the information provided by health and social care professionals on a local, regional and national scale across the UK. ‘The government have produced guidelines and information to state how they will tackle the problems controlling and preventing infectious disease spread.’ (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 8) The strategies outlined in the guidelines by the government are a series of proposed actions in order to create a system in which to prevent, investigate and control the threat of infectious diseases and to address health protection on a wider scale. M1 – Describe the origins of public health policy in the UK from the 19th century to the present day. In this essay I will compare two different health measures in the 19th century and how they have made an impact on society today. I am also going to compare and explain the living conditions of towns and cities in the 19th, 20th and 21st century. Public health has developed considerably over the years and the changes that have occurred overtime reflect on the health concerns of the nation during each time period. These changes are what have produced the Public Health system that is currently in place today. Over the year’s vast amounts of medical knowledge of today’s health professionals have increased in response as to how diseases are spread, along with the advances in medicine that have aided in helping to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases. During the 19th century the living conditions were exceedingly poor and there were various health issues of which include overcrowding in housing and overcrowding in general, thereby resulting in the spread of disease. The Poor Law Act (1834) was established in 1834. The Poor Law was designed in order to reduce the cost of looking after the poor and impose a system which  would be the same all across the country. The industrial revolution led to the development of towns and cities across the UK. The population of the nation had increased rapidly once the Poor Law Act was implemented. The country’s poverty relief system had not been amended since 1601, before finally coming into play as a result of Edwin Chadwick, John Snow. The Public Health Act was first implemented in 1848 in order to ensure that sanitary conditions were provided for in populated areas across the UK. In response to the Public Health Act 1848 The General Board of Health was developed so as to ensure that all public health policies that were administered were carried out as effectively as possible. Edwin Chadwick was the first commissioner of the board. The implementation of the act allowed for authorities working with civil engineers and medics to improve sanitation. (Baker L, 2008, BTEC National Health and Social Care Book 2, page 14) Edwin Chadwick (1800-1890) was accredited for his work on the reformation of the Poor Law. Edwin Chadwick was appointed by the government to carry out investigations and research into current sanitation. Chadwick wrote a report outlining his findings known as ‘The Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population’ published in 1842. In his report Chadwick argued that disease had a direct link to living conditions. After the report was produced new measures were taken in order to help promote the safe disposal of human waste and rubbish. Chadwick believed that poor sanitary conditions caused disease. John Snow (1813-1858) was a British physician commended for his work in relation to the cholera outbreak in 1854. Snow was an anaesthetist and epidemiologist interested in the practices of cleanliness and hygiene put in place to help prevent disease. Snow formed the link between the cholera outbreak to the contaminated water residing in the water pump in Broad Street. In 1854, Snow identified that a water pump in Broad Street located near one of the cess pits was what was contaminating the water; thereby linking the Broad Street pump as the outbreak site of the disease. Higher mortality rates were linked to the Broad Street pump. ‘He had the handle of  the pump removed, and cases of cholera immediately began to diminish.’ Throughout the 20th century more Acts and Reforms were put in place in order to reduce the risk of spreading infection that led to illness and disease among the UK population. This included; Beveridge Report (1942), NHS (1946), Black Report (1980), Acheson Report (1998), Our Health Nation (1997), Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation (1999). William Beveridge (1879-1963) produced ‘The Beveridge Report’ in 1942, which went on to become the basis of a series of reforms after the Second World War, by looking into way on reducing inequalities in the health care provision. This report has been used as the foundation for most social legislation. The Beveridge Report was a major influence in the introduction of The Welfare State along with The National Health Service founded in 1949. The Beveridge report focused on sanitation and ways to improve and change the educational standards of areas which were highly affected by poverty. The report suggested that the working class gave a share of their wages in order to aid those who did not work, those of which who were either sick, unemployed, retired or widowed were then given these contributions. The government tasked Beveridge with the developing a report that was based on the ways that Britain should be rebuilt once the Second World War ended. The report was published in 1942 and provided recommendations to the government in order to find ways of tackling the five ‘Giant Evils’ known as ‘Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness.’ Edwin Chadwick 1842, William Beveridge 1942 and the White Paper Report: making healthier choices easier attempted to improve overall public health. Whereas Chadwick focused on poverty, Beveridge focused on sanitation and the White Paper was specific to health. Beveridge and the White Paper Report: making healthier choices easier focused on poverty and how it affected a person’s overall health. Whereas in the Beveridge report he chose to write about The Welfare State, whilst the White Paper talked about reducing inequalities to health. John Snow and the White Paper Report both used statistics in order to provide evidence in order to give insight into the condition of public health and what need attention before giving suggestions on how to improve it. Works Cited Public Health. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wright, J., Williams, R., & Wilkinson, J. (1998, April 28 ). BMJ Health needs assessment. British Medical Journal, 1310-1313. Anon, (2014). [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Oct. 2014]., (2014). BBC – History – Historic Figures: John Snow (1813 – 1858). [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Oct. 2014]., (2014). BBC – History – William Beveridge. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Oct. 2014]. Spartacus Educational, (2014). Edwin Chadwick. [online] Available at: [Accessed 3 Oct. 2014]. wiseGEEK, (2014). What is an Epidemiologist? (with pictures). [online] Available at: [Accessed 4 Oct. 2014].

Mr. Price

Place your cursor on the area where you wish to enter Information. The box will turn black; begin typing. Title: Content Area: Publisher: Hardware Required: courseware Functions: check all that apply by â€Å"left† mouse clicking In the square. Drill and practice Simulation Instructional gaming Problem solving Tutorial Other Many characteristics should be considered when selecting courseware for use in one's classroom or lab, but the following should be considered essential qualities for ny instructional product on the computer.If courseware does not meet these criteria, It should not be considered for purchase. For each item, check (left mouse click), all that are appropriate for the courseware under review. l. Instructional Design and Pedagogical Soundness Teaching strategy appropriate for student level and based on best-known methods. Presentation on screen contains nothing that misleads or confuses students. Readability and difficulty at an appropriate level for students w ho will use it Comments to students not abusive or insulting Graphics fulfill important purpose (motivation, information) and are not distracting to learners.Criteria specific to drill and practice functions High degree of control over presentation rate (unless the method is timed review). Appropriate feedback for correct answers (none, if timed; not elaborate or time- consuming) Feedback more reinforcing for correct than for incorrect responses. Criteria specific to tutorials High degree of interactivity (not just reading information). High degree of user control (forward and backward movement, branching upon request). omprehensive teaching sequence so Instruction Is self-contained and stand-alone.Adequate answer-judging capabilities for student-constructed answers to questions Criteria specific to simulations Appropriate degree of fidelity (accurate depiction of system being modeled) Good documentation available on how program works. Criteria specific to instructional games: Low q uotient of violence or combat-type activities 1 OF2 Amount 0T pnyslcal aexterlty requlrea approprlate to students Content No grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors on screen. and current No racial, ethnic, or gender stereotypes. no wlll use It. II.All content accurate Sensitive treatment of moral and/or social issues (e. g. , perspectives on war or capital punishment) Ill. User Flexibility User normally has some control of movement within the program (e. g. , can go from screen to screen at desired rate; can read text at desired rate; can exit program when desired). Can turn off sound, if desired ‘V. Technical Soundness Program loads consistently, without error. Program does not break, no matter what the student enters. the screen says it should do. Decision Recommended for purchase Not recommended Comments: Program does what

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Employees’ Perception of Selection Systems

Introduction This paper summarises the views of two authors on how job applicants or potential employees perceive selection procedures. Both articles focus on employees’ perceptions of selection methods. Article 1: â€Å"Applicants Perceptions of Selection Procedures and Decisions: A Critical Review and Agenda for the Future†. The first article is written by Ryan and Plolyhart (2000) and is titled â€Å"Applicants’ Perceptions of Selection Procedures and Decisions: A Critical Review and Agenda for the Future†. This article is motivated by the fact that low unemployment rates have increased the competition for employees, which has forced organisations to review the various components used in selecting job applicants and how job applicants’ perceptions of those procedures can affect the attractiveness of the organisation to potential employees. Another motivation for this study is the fact that there is lack of better research on applicant perspectives. Thirdly, the article notes that social justice theorists are looking for ways to apply social justice theory concepts to applicants’ perceptions of selection methods. Moreover, there is an increasing diversity in the workforce as well as racial differences in perception of selection procedures which can affect the manner in which j ob applicants perceive organisations and thus the attractiveness of those organisations to potential employees. The article notes that one of the main assumptions of most research in this area is that the manner in which job applicants perceive selection procedures and processes affects the manner in which the applicant views the organisation and thus the decision on whether to apply for a job vacancy to that organisation or not. The article also suggests that differences in perceptions between minority and majority groups on certain selection procedures can account for some of the differences in job performance that is often observed between these two groups. The article begins by reviewing the works of Schimittand Gilliland (1992) and Gilliland (1993). These studies develop a model which provides a link between between applicants’ perceptions of selection systems and situational factors and their subsequent â€Å"attitudes and behaviours† towards those organisations. The model postulates that applicants’ perceptions of the procedural justice system are influenced by situational characteristics. These characteristics include the type of test administered during the selection process, the human resource policy of the organisation and the behaviour of the human resource staff of the organisation. The overall fairness of the selection system is influenced by the degree to which the applicants’ perceptions of the procedural justice of the selection system meet the expectations of applicants. The framework further stipulates that applicants’ prior experiences with a selection system would affect the evaluatio n of the system. Distributive justice rules of equity, equality, and need have an impact on the perceptions of the distributive fairness of the final decision reached through the selection system. Distributive justice rules are in turn influenced by performance expectations and the salience of discrimination. In a nutshell, the framework concludes that there should be a relationship between outcomes such as â€Å"job application decisions, test motivation, self-esteem, self-efficacy, endorsement of the company’s products, job acceptance decisions, job satisfaction, and performance among others† and applicants’ perceptions of fairness of the selection process. After reviewing the framework, the authors then move on to provide a critical review of the empirical literature and evaluating how they conform to the framework. The review focuses on four key areas including: The perceptions that have been studied; The factors that determine applicants’ perceptions; The consequences of holding more positive or negative perceptions; and The theoretical frameworks that have been presented. With respect to the applicants’ perceptions that have been studied, the article notes that the most commonly researched perceptions include applicants’ feelings regarding degree to which the selection system is related to the job, feelings about the fairness of various aspects of the selection system and its associated outcomes, as well as feelings about test taking motivation. The authors provide a critical review in this area and conclude that a major concern with most of these studies is that their constructs are imprecise with respect to the manner in which they are defined as well as the variability with which they are operationalised. As a result, the authors conclude that a better conceptualisation of research on test behaviours and on fairness is required to improve understanding. The authors however, admit that the work of Chan et al (1998) to a certain extent provides a link between test attitudes and perception of fairness although the study focused only on two concepts from each line of research. According to the authors, lack of an improved integration of studies on test attitudes on fairness and test attitudes makes understanding difficult. For example, it is difficult to determine whether potential employees who are more anxious perceive procedures are more unfair as opposed to those who are less anxious. In addition, it is difficult to deter mine whether beliefs about testing have a higher impact on perceptions of fairness of a procedure than characteristics of the procedure and selection situation itself. The author notes that notes that most test-taking attitude measures are perceptions of oneself (including motivation, anxiety, etc) while justice-related perceptions typically focus on the fairness of the test used in making hiring or rejection decisions. The authors argue that there should be a relationship between applicants’ motivation and anxiety and the justice-related perceptions. The authors also suggest that it is important for other perceptions to be tested. Basically most of the studies under review focus on how the motivation or perceptions of applicants influence their perceptions of fairness. This approach neglects the impact of other perceptions of fairness that may be critical for the improvement of selection systems. Article 2: â€Å"Fairness Reactions to Selection Methods: An Italian Study†. This article is written by Bertolino and Steiner (2007). Like the first article, this article begins by reviewing the works of other authors who provide different conceptual frameworks on the relationship between applicants’ perceptions of fairness of selection systems and their attitudes and behaviours towards the organisations. This article cites the work of Schuler (1993) whose framework suggests that the reaction of applicants to a selection process is a function of the key characteristics of the selection techniques employed. In addition, the article reviews the work of Anderson and Ostroff (1997) who focus on the socialisation impact of selection methods. Like the first article, the second article also reviews the work of Gilliland (1993) who employ organisational justice theory to comprehend the reaction of applicants to selection systems. Unlike the first article, which is based solely on a critical review of empirical literature on the reaction of applicants to selection systems as well as the underlying models of selection systems, the second article is based on both primary and secondary information. It begins by reviewing literature, and then conducts and exploratory study on the reaction of applicants to selection systems using a sample of 137 Italian students. The study is motivated by the fact that despite the presence of evidence on selection systems, most of the studies have been conducted in other countries with no attention given to Italy. The article notes that cultural differences may play an important role in the manner in which applicants perceive selection systems and thus their reaction to those systems as well as their attitudes towards the organisation. Based on the four dimensions of culture proposed by Hofstede (1980, 1991) (individualism vs collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity vs femi ninity, and power distance), the article suggests that it is possible for selection systems to be avoided by these four dimensions. For example, the article reviews the work of Ryan et al. (1999) who show that uncertainty avoidance can affect the selection practices of many countries. In addition, the study reviews the work of Triandis (1990) who argue that people from countries with high uncertainty avoidance prefer predictability, knowing what others will do, and having clear instructions and expectations. This means that employees who work in countries with high uncertainty avoidance should be more inclined towards engaging in structuring activities, including the standardisation of practices. On the contrary, those in countries with low uncertainty avoidance should be less committed to formal structures and should be prepared to accept spontaneous changes in practices. The study employed a survey questionnaire to study the reaction of Italian student to selection systems. The questionnaire used in the study is the one developed by Steiner and Gilliland (1996) which presents 10 different selection methods used in the U.S or Europe. The questionnaire asked students to think about a job they would apply for upon completion of their course Using a within-subject analysis of variance (ANOVA) the ratings of process favourability was compared across 10 selection methods. The evidence suggests that there are significant differences across the 10 selection methods. The selection method that received the most favoured rating was â€Å"work-sample test†. Resumes, written ability tests, interviews and personal preferences had the second favourable rating. Personality tests and biographical information blanks received a neutral rating while honesty tests and personal contacts received negative ratings. The authors conclude that their results are similar to those obtained from other countries. In particular, they observe that employer’s right, opportunity to perform and face validity are the procedural dimensions that had a high correlation with process favourability for all four countries that were studied. The two articles are similar in that they both begin by providing a theoretical framework on selection methods. Both articles provide the same theory which shows that there is a relationship between applicants’ perceptions and their reactions to selection systems. However, the first article differs from the second one in that it is based solely on the review of secondary literature. The article does not arrive on any conclusions with respect applicants reactions to selection systems. Rather, it identifies weaknesses in the literature and provides recommended procedures for improvement in future studies. On the contrary, the second article employs primary data to study how employees’ perceptions of selection systems affect their reactions to those systems. It compares findings to previous studies and concludes that culture has no significant impact on employees’ reaction to selection systems in Western countries. The study observes that the findings from France, I taly and other Western countries are similar to those obtained in studies from the United States. This shows that the different cultural dimensions mentioned in Hofstede (1981, 1990) do not influence the manner in which employees perceive selection systems which means that it does not affect the manner in which the react to those systems. The foregoing suggests that other factors may be affecting employees’ perceptions rather than culture. Conclusions and Recommendations Based on the discussion of the two articles above, one can conclude that employees’ perception of selection procedures influences the manner in which they behave towards the organisation and the decision to accept or reject an offer to work for a particular company. These perceptions may even influence the applicants other interactions with the company such as deciding to buy or not to buy the company’s products. The main difference between the two articles is that one focuses on criticising research on selection systems while one focuses on understanding how employees perceive selection systems across countries and how those systems affect their reaction. Based on this conclusion, it is important for organisations to note that the manner in which they design their selection system can affect the perception of applicants and as such affect the attractiveness of vacancies to potential applicants. Selection systems can even influence the ability of a company to attract qu alified applicants. If employees have a negative perception about a particular company, they may not be motivated to apply for a vacancy in that company and this may make it difficult for the company to fill the vacancy with a qualified applicant. Consequently, employers should seek the most favourable selection systems so as to increase their ability to attract qualified applicants to their jobs. The first article shows that research on selection systems is limited. Therefore, this paper recommends that more research should be conducted on selection systems and how employees perceive those systems. By so doing one can provide better recommendations to employers to aid them in designing their selection systems. References Bertolino, M., Steiner, D. D. (2007) â€Å"Fairness Reactions to Selection Methods: An Italian study†, International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15, Number 2 Ryan, A. N., Ployhart R. E. (2000) â€Å"Applicants Perceptions of Selection Procedures and Decisions: A Critical Review and Agenda for the Future†, Journal of Management, 26, 565-606

Monday, July 29, 2019

John Crowe Ransom described Hardy as essentially a Victorian poet, in Essay

John Crowe Ransom described Hardy as essentially a Victorian poet, in which sense is this true - Essay Example His first volume of poems, Wessex Poems, was not published before 1898, even though a number of its lyrics dated from the 1870s. Early critics found Hardy's lyrics tasteless as well as his novels, in particular, because of their unsophisticated style, pessimistic motifs and abstractive philosophy. He was also charged with his simplistic refrains and uncomplicatedness of his lyric forms. Furthermore, he was "accused of writing lyrics that were flawed by the pervasiveness of the philosophy that informed them. Gothic architecture loomed in the back of Hardy's mind throughout his career as a poet, providing a powerful model for artistic unity and complexity" (Mitchell, 1988, p.307). Contemporary critics admire his self-sufficient 'evolutionary meliorism' and his sharp poetical irony, woven into his own psychological insights as well as modernist 'spareness' and roughness of his poetic and melodic experiences. His poetry is a quintessence of loss, severe nostalgia and the somber borders of human hope and love. To great extent, Hardy saw himself as a poet - foremost a poet - through his literary career, and even though his poetic heritage is not always acknowledged by critics, his numerous powerful verses, such as 'Nature's Questioning', 'Neutral Tones', 'The Convergence of the Twain' and many others, make the reader re-think one's own existence and human emotions on the background of Victorian landscape. "His poetry is spare, unadorned, and unromantic, and its pervasive theme is man's futile struggle against cosmic forces. Hardy's vision reflects a world in which Victorian complacencies were dying but its moralism was not, and in which science had eliminated the comforting certainties of religion" (The Columbia Encyclopedia, 2004, p. 684 (21027)). Thomas Hardy is often seen as a Victorian poet (Williams, 1972; Page, 2000; Mitchell, 1988) for his perception of time, space and external objects, typically attributed to Victorian realism. Thus, it is important to outline the typical features of classical Victorian poetry. First of all, poetry was considered superior than prose by Victorian poets, because the real genius can be noticed in lyrics and rhymes. Poetic illustration of social problems was vital, and poets were viewed as masters of style and rhythm, due to their ability to interweave profound philosophy (including philosophy of life) with such social issues, as marriage, gender and education. Secondly, Victorian poets widely used retrospective forms (such as epigram, epitaph and elegy) and archaic language. In addition, they sometimes referred to ancient mythical characters, especially to those from Greek mythology. On the other hand, despite the general elaboration of language and style, many poets practiced simplistic and colloquial genres. Thirdly, Victorian poetry is also characterized by the use of social themes, such as individual versus society, social drama, as well as by realistic approach (influenced by the emergence of Utilitarianism, Unitarianism and other moral theories). In addition, many poets appealed to the reader's sympathy and sentimentalism as well as to his/her imagination (Page, 2000) (especially as it related to rural landscapes and pastorals), but merely within the realistic context. In addition, the

Sunday, July 28, 2019

1996 Health care reform Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

1996 Health care reform - Essay Example It also endorses the graduate health learning and finance different health programs including a health program for children. There is also the pharmaceutical coverage program for the elderly, initial care, countryside wellbeing care and quality advancement (Rutherford, 2004). The enactment of this act came into effect in 1997. In 1997, the HRCA substituted almost twenty years of rate controlled health compensation with an assortment of bargained rates and persisting public funding for a varied combination of significant health connected schemes. This encompasses medical tutoring, destitute care and coverage initiatives for the uncovered. HCRA authorization has been conducted two times. This is in 1999 as well as in 2003. It was considerably modified in 2002. The expansions and modifications have extended health coverage for the uncovered, gives protection funding for small corporations and employed persons, and also funding to support health security for employees enrolment and retention. Finances for these extensions were to emanate from allotment of a part of the State tobacco payment money, escalated cigarette duties and a onetime augmentation of federal income (Charles and Carl, 2002). Moreover, the public funds sustained by HCRA came via three sources. Firstly, the Public Goods source endorsed by one percent state wide evaluation on hospitals net inpatient incomes, supplementary fees on hospital services as well as protected lives evaluations on sovereign coverage organizations. These organizations depend on the number of individuals protected. Secondly, there are funds from Tobacco Control and protection initiatives, initially endorsed by cigarette excises and tobacco payment finances. Thirdly, there are resources for the Bad Debt as well as Charity Care. There is also the destitute care and inconsistent share. The resources for this emanate from

Saturday, July 27, 2019

You can make a topic Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

You can make a topic - Essay Example The need to maximize profit through specialization thus boosting country’s economy is the main cause of monoculture in many countries. It is evident that modernized agriculture has brought immense negative contributions in the ecological system and further extended the influence on peoples’ lives, culture, political and social status. Use of fertilizers and pesticides which is contributed by monoculture has greatly depleted and polluted soil, water and every other useful resource used in farming thus causing serious consequences on the environment. Modification of herbicides and crop engineering has not however brought the expected change it was intended to in some herbicides and even in increasing the yield of some crops but instead brought serious harm to the environment. It is obvious that mechanized farming is not beneficial since it does more harm than good but efforts to indulge in agro ecology are also greatly suppressed in many ways including the government. The need to make money and the intensive advertisements by huge agrochemical corporations is really hindering farmers from adopting the best style of farming that is environmental friendly. Farming can be done in a way that animals and crops grown mutually benefit each other without inclusion of chemicals and fertilizers which are harmful to the environment such as planting cover crops, crop rotation and use of farm yard manure. The size of land does also not support crop rotation and generally the whole issue of agro ecology. I strongly concur with the author of this article that capital-technology intensive agricultural practices such as use of fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides which has contributed to monoculture has posed danger in our ecosystem. I strongly support agro ecology since it is the only way environmental degradation can be minimized and our

Friday, July 26, 2019

An analysis of the culture of an organization Essay

An analysis of the culture of an organization - Essay Example It also has an influence on group’s interactions. Ben and Jerry’s is an organization that has been in operation for over 30 years since its inception. It is an organization whose culture has been integral for its survival in a market where it faces so much competition from other heavy weight organizations such as McDonalds. It has innovative management strategies and they have brought much success for the organization. Its ice cream is said to be the richest in terms of flavors and calories (Andy, 2003; Liddle, 2011). In addition, the company sells its products at a price that is favorable to many customers (Heidrick & Struggles, 2000). A brief background to the organization and its environment Ben and Jerry’s is a company in the United States that manufactures and sells ice cream. The company also manufactures sorbet as well as frozen yogurt (Datamonitor, 2010). The company, founded in the year 1978 by two men, Ben Cohen and Jerry Greenfield has its headquarters at Burlington, Vermont in the U. S. Its factory is in Waterbury, Vermont. The two guys had met in a gym class in the year 1966. Jerry wanted to be a medical doctor but after failing to succeed joining a medical school after a number of trials, he decided to take a course in ice cream making. They pursued the course with Ben who had lost several McJobs. This was in the year 1978. After the course they opened an ice cream shop in a gas station in Burlington, Vermont. They produced the finest ice cream and this made helped them become finest (Heidrick & Struggles, 2000). Ben did not have a sense of taste. As a result, he was relying on mouth feel. This resulted to the trademark they use to date which is big chunks of chocolate, nut and fruits. At times, they could disagree on the size of chunks. However, they both wanted to enjoy themselves and this kept them moving. The two were poor book keepers and therefore they were not able to account properly for their sales. As a result, they closed for some time claiming that they wanted to figure out if they were making money in their business. It was a period of learning and when they reopened in the year 1979, they started wholesaling ice cream. Since then, the company has grown to become one of the best ice cream selling companies in the United States of America. Ben and Jerry’s is part of the Unilever Group (Hays, 2000). It was acquired by Unilever in the year 2000 for a reported $326 (Glass, 2009). Introduction to the focus of the report Culture of an organization is an important issue in the business world since it has an influence on the organizational performance. Culture can be studied using a number of approaches. In the wake of globalization, it is important for business people as well as academicians to understand the culture of different countries. This is especially important for multinationals since they operate in different countries which have varying cultures. All the concerned parties have to see business as well as personal issues from a perspective other than one’s own cultural perspective. It is therefore imperative that studying culture from various frameworks will be highly helpful. This report focuses on the culture of analysis of an organization in the United States of America known as Ben and Jerry’s. The report will apply a theoretical framework to try and understand the cu

An outline marketing plan for the next year for Atlantic Quench 306 Essay - 2

An outline marketing plan for the next year for Atlantic Quench 306 - Essay Example Moreover, alliance with brands like Coca-Cola and Gerber has also boosted the market presence of Atlantic Quench. The marketing plan for the concerned firm focuses on developing a new product for entering the mass consumer market and providing the consumers a cheaper alternative against highly priced pure juices. With an aim to sell 250000 units of 250 ml tetra packs of the new product, Atlantic Quench will begin by streamlining the functional aspects of the company to reduce their cost. The product introduction is developed with differentiation focus and the control of the marketing activities will focus on cost leadership. Based on this, the price skimming has been selected as the pricing strategy. The budget developed also reflects the estimated earnings and expenses for the new product segment of Atlantic Quench in the next 4 years. With appropriate market presence and brand development activities for creating consumer awareness, Atlantic Quench can enter the global market of jui ce and nectar segment. Atlantic Quench operates in the fruit industry mainly in its home market i.e. US and is a co-operative business process. Established in the year 1934, the co-operative has become one of the most famous brands in agricultural product market with their extensive and highly demanded product base. Jointly owned by 630 cranberry and 46 grape fruit farmers, the production channel of the company is also steady and growing. As the co-operative saw the demand of their products growing in the market, they entered the retail sector with bottled fruit juices. However, the primary concern of the business is related to control its growth in an organised manner and also ensure a good relationship with the farmers. In order to overcome the financial crunch, Atlantic Quench CEO Chuck Berry decided to develop the brand of the company by converting into a full-fledged business houses. Atlantic

Thursday, July 25, 2019

James Fowlers Stages of Faith Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

James Fowlers Stages of Faith - Assignment Example It is also the product of a person’s interactions with other people, whether or not these people nurtured the person’s faith or not. Or, it can also be the result of various personal experiences which may or may not resonate with others but had a profound impact on how a person lives life every day. Thus, regardless of whether a person believes in a supreme being, many creators, or not acknowledging the importance of divine entities, faith is the driving force for people to commit and to move their ways through life’s hardships, trials, and times of happiness and joy (â€Å"Stages of Faith† 4). Fowler’s stages of faith are not a measurement of how good a person is in whatever religion or belief system one belongs to, and that it is only a measurement and approximation of one’s thought patterns with respect to a Higher Being, whether these are complex or simple for one’s age (Fowler and Dell 40). ... s similar to what others believe as well, which in turn makes them think that what they believe in is something common that everyone else thinks of as well (â€Å"Stages of Faith† 153). Also, it has been previously mentioned that many people become stable in this stage and grow quite comfortable with the ceremonial aspects of their religions, accepting everything without question and doubts. However, this is also a stage where the believers can also be harshly critical and judgmental of others whom they believe do not share the same ideas with them, and this can lead to negative reactions and feedback from these â€Å"other† people (152). This is typically due to the fact that people in this stage are not liable to think outside the box, and that doing so makes them feel unworthy and sinful due to questioning their religious leaders and in turn, makes them question God. Such ideas are exemplified in a case study of an acquaintance, and despite the age of late twenties s till seems to be in the synthetic-conventional stage of faith: Marlene (not her real name) has been an active member of the local Catholic Church for as long as she can remember. When she was younger, she attends church with her family every Sunday and every Feast Day, and was a member of the children’s choir who actively participates in each practice session. As she grew older, she also became involved in catechism sessions for younger children before receiving their first holy communion, and she also participates in Sunday schools whenever possible. This was her routine habit until she left to study college in another state. She had many friends and acquaintances in university, and they say that she was a hard-worker and a dedicated student, aside from being their go-to friend whenever they have

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Marketing trend (Internet and online marketing) Assignment - 1

Marketing trend (Internet and online marketing) - Assignment Example Internet marketing reduces the overall marketing cost of a firm because a firm can utilize emailing as a marketing tool, which costs fairly lower than the direct mail (McCarthy, 2011). In addition, through e-marketing, a business can expect immediate impulsive response from its target market by them clicking on the website. In this manner, the message of the company reaches a large number of consumers in less time, as well as at low cost (Arnold, 2009). With regards to consumers, on the other hand, internet marketing reduces the cost of them going to the market to look for products. However, they can only do this if they have access to the internet (Jenkins, 2012). They also need various assets such as credit cards to purchase some goods over the internet. Internet or online marketing affects a business by providing it with a variety of advantages. It has turned into a power tool and organizations can use it to make their 24 hours presence throughout the world (Jenkins, 2012). Consumers also have the opportunity of shopping online, and inquire on the services and products at any time. With regards to customers, it is easy for them to leave their queries and comments through email or the feedback form (McCarthy, 2011). The firm’s representatives can also answer the queries instantly or in a short time period. This opportunity has helped customers build up close association with companies and this expands business. Internet marketing has brought about a rise in market competition since it has become easy for many firms to advertise successfully online by taking advantage of the low budgets (McCarthy, 2011). It is essential that firms, prior to entering an online market, be well aware of the potential impacts of internet marketing, and they should plan their strategies to face the online marketing barriers before going online. According to research, a majority of consumers, 60%, show reluctance when it come to purchasing goods over the internet. They opt

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Music Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words - 2

Music - Essay Example dentify his place in the society and makes him realize what role he is actually playing or being a part of the society what role the society expects him to play. However, such perception or gaining of experience is always not very positive, as, a human being, due to various socio-cultural turmoil as well as personal level hostility, perceives the society and its inhabitants essentially hostile. Due to development of such conception he also assumes that the basic requirements to live as a Human Being are not been provided to him by the social institution. Consequently, he rebels against all those systems as well as attempts to assert himself as a separate identity that is engaged in an eternal quest to gain his rights and rightful place in the socio-cultural backdrop. In the eyes of the society he becomes, thus, an outlaw, a misfit but deep inside his heart he believes that what he is doing is right because he is fighting not only for his place in the society as an individual but his rebellion is actually voicing position of several other people who also are engaged in the same quest to recover their rightful place in the society. Judging this position, such a person can be equaled with the character of Satan in Paradise Lost (Book I) where Satan wages immortal battle against God, who becomes representative of the social institutions, restraining basic rights and freedom of the common people. Such essence of hope for a better future, fused with the spirit of rebellion can best be perceived in music. Whenever it has come to social dynamism, radical change into the existing socio-cultural structure, and change into the cultural perspective of the existing social form, music has always voiced the reflection of common people, their perception about society and the spirit to rebel that would finally help in constructing and deconstructing the thought pattern for a better future. Such phenomenon is true in case of every society, if we make an evaluation of music from

Monday, July 22, 2019

Classical Civilisation Essay Example for Free

Classical Civilisation Essay To what extent can we reconstruct the palace civilisation of Mycenae? What does the evidence tell us about their society and how they lived?  This Golden Age, kept alive by Homers poetry, tells the story of an advanced society during a period in history adorned by wealth and legends, believed to have been circa 1450 to 1100 BC. Assembling the limited evidence reveals the art and architecture of the Mycenaean World. The remains of the palaces show evidence of a rich civilisation. The later Greeks referred to this period as a Golden Age when men were bigger and stronger than they are now (Homers Iliad). This is a fascinating era glorified with heroes and victory, which almost three millenniums later, still captures the curiosity of so many. The evidence used to reconstruct this period is questionable. There are archaeological finds, which include the sites and the artefacts. It is difficult to draw accurate conclusions from these due to their age. Then there are literary sources such as Homers Iliad and Odyssey. The problem with using these sources is that many people believe that Homer lived around 700BC, which means the stories he tells will have been greatly adapted to his period. Additionally, others argue that there is little evidence proving that the books are not purely fictional. Architecture and construction proves wealth and culture. Increasingly influenced by Crete, the Mycenaeans began to build palaces of their own. Initially they modelled them on Minoan architecture. This implies that they sailed across the sea. Later they began to develop huge fortifications. Palaces were built throughout Hellas. The most famous Greek palace of the Mycenaean period was found at Mycenae, the city of the legendary Agamemnon who was anax of the expedition against Troy. Others were found in Pylos, Thebes, Athens and Iolkos. They were logically constructed and shared the same features, which proves there was a link between them. They were obviously not isolated from one another. One may assume Mycenae was the main palace and possibly had a primitive infrastructure connecting it to the other sites.  The centre of the palace was a columned porch called a megaron (figure 1). A throne would have also been found on one side. This implies they had a King who held an important role in society. The first floor appeared to have been used for storage and the second floor was where the women lived. The materials used to construct these buildings include stone blocks, mud brick, bonding timber and plaster, which proves the Mycenaeans were a resourceful, organised society. Their building technique is known as corbelling, where each successive row of stones in a wall is laid further out than the previous one below it. The palace of Pylos was the only one not to be fortified by huge walls, one of the main features of Mycenaean palaces. There were three types of citadels: polygonal (various shaped blocks neatly fitted together), ashlar (squared blocks neatly fitted  Cyclopean walls 2 The Lions Gate   together) and finally the famous cyclopean walls (huge, irregular stones yielding massive walls) called so because they were so large that it was believed only a Cyclops could have built them (figure 3). The walls at the palace of Mycenae, where The Lions Gate was uncovered in 1841, are 1100 meters long, protecting the dominating power of the Peloponnese (figure 4).  These massive defences also show that the Mycenaeans felt the need to protect themselves from external threats. Houses were built below the citadel, which implies a close community. They were generally self-sufficient homes with a kitchen, altar and hearth. Their furniture was varied and frequently included a plaster bench, tables, foot-stoles and even bathtubs. Their homes appear to have been comfortable.  More isolated homes were also uncovered in the hills (i.e. Mouriatada, on the west coast). The constructions were smaller and did not use such high quality masonry but did include a megaron and private houses. One may deduce from this that wealth peaked in and around the palaces. Water supplies were an equally important construction to ensure survival and well-being. The palace of Athens had a well, built within the walls, making it accessible, even if they were threatened by a siege.  The cistern built at Mycenae at the end of the 13th century, extended underground beyond the walls, making it more vulnerable (figure 5).  The Mycenaeans learned from the Minoans, in crafts, in efficient organisation and in writing. This is concluded from the similar architecture, tablets and pottery found. The wave of palace destructions on Crete around 1450 and the eventual fall of Knossos around1375 marked the start of the most flourishing period for the Mycenaeans. New pottery shapes and styles began. They produced three handled jars, kraters (large bowls) and kylikes (goblets with long stems). Backgrounds were being painted red or black as opposed to light, matt tones. Forms appeared more natural, like the Minoan art. They began to use floral decorations.  Next, the Mycenaean Age adopted geometric patterns and abstract forms on its pottery. They made stirrup jars, yet another indication of Minoan influence. As the civilisation reached its height, so did the art. Vases were mass-produced for export as well as for use on the main land. Evidence of objects from afar were found at the Palace of Knossos, in Crete, which shows signs of huge wealth, probably due to the position of the island, the cross road of the Mediterranean in circa 1400 BC. The Mycenaeans were equally as good tradesmen as the Minoans. Their pottery was found in Sicily, Rhodes, Cyprus, Italy, Asia Minor, Northern Syria and Miletus, which suggests they were good sailors and traded with the east Mediterranean and Europe. In some places their influence seems so strong that one could think that they had permanent strongholds there, what we may consider today a colonisation. However, they were not able to enter Asia Minor because of the Hittites, described as a strong, troublesome civilisation.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Effects of Weight Stigma | Article Analysis

Effects of Weight Stigma | Article Analysis In their 51st volume, the Journal of Experimental Social Psychology published an article named â€Å"The Ironic Effects of Weight Stigma† in which researchers explore the realistic effects that weight stigmas and weight-related identity threats can have on an individual’s dietary habits and self-efficacy regarding self-control. All subjects in the experiments were female, as it was previously concluded that women are more susceptible to weight-related stigmas as well as weight-related identity threats. The scientists decided to test the effects of these stigmas and identity threats by designing an experiment in which participants first read either an article that presents a weight-related identity threat (experimental group), or an article that is unrelated to weight and obesity (control group), and then were asked to give a brief speech explaining the article, its validity, as well as the implications of the ideas discussed in the articles. After giving their speeches, the participants were placed in an unobserved room for ten minutes with pre-weighed bowls of MMs, Skittles, and Goldfish snacks and told to help themselves to a snack. The observed variables in this experiment included calories consumed after having given their speeches, the participants’ self-efficacy for dietary control (as evaluated by a questionnaire that scales self efficacy for dietary control), the subject’s concern regarding being the subject of weight stigma, as well as the individual’s speech and nonverbal behavior. Although women in the experimental and control groups did not differ in perceived weight, and neither did white vs. non-white participants, it was shown that non-white participants had higher BMIs than their white counterparts. The results of the experiment were certainly ironic, but not to be unexpected. Women who were subjected to weight related identity threat inevitably had a positive correlation between perceived weight and calories consumed, whereas women in the control group had little to no correlation between perceived weight and calories consumed. Essentially, only those who were self-described as overweight would consume more calories after being subjected to a weight related stigmatization, and those who elf-described as overweight would only reflect an increase in calorie consumption after having been exposed to a stigma regarding weight. Furthermore, among women that were exposed to the threat condition, perceived weight was significantly negatively coordinated with self-efficacy regarding dietary control whereas perceived weight had no correlation with self-efficacy for dietary control for women in the control group. Also, self-described overweight women reflected lower self-efficacy for cont rolling their diet when subjected to the identity threat while women who did not describe themselves as overweight reflected higher self-efficacy for dietary control when presented with the weight-related identity threat. The study essentially found that stigmatizations regarding weight often have an effect opposite of what is desired. Being confronted with a stigma regarding weight is likely to cause a person who perceives themselves as being overweight to eat more and have lower self-efficacy regarding their ability to control their own dietary habits, in other words it in no way encourages them to eat healthy or feel empowered regarding their dietary decisions.

Role Of Armed Forces During Disaster Relief

Role Of Armed Forces During Disaster Relief 1. Although the man has made extensive progress in his relatively short existence on earth, he is still virtually helpless in front of vagaries of nature. Natural disasters such as cyclones, flood and earthquakes ravage mans domain at will and cause much loss to life and property. Despite everyones concern for disasters and technological developments in the world, the response to disasters has been knee jerk and uncoordinated at international, national and state levels. The problem is more acute in developing countries rather than in developed ones. The United Nations and its specialised agencies have always had an interest in and commitment to disaster relief. Therefore, there are various disaster relief, preparedness, prevention and mitigation programmes being carried out by various United Nations Organisations  [1]  . 2. The trend of occurrence of disasters is increasing and will escalate in future. Disasters like tsunamis and earthquakes, which have been the most destructive, along with the floods and droughts that arise from extreme weather conditions, are expected to get worse due to adverse impact of climate change. In the 21st century, the 2001 Bhuj earthquake; the 2004 tsunami; the 2005 earthquake in Kashmir; heavy rainfall in Mumbai in 2006 when nearly 1 m rain fell in a single day; the 2008 Bihar Kosi disaster; the August 2010 cloud burst in Leh; and, most recently, the September 2011 Sikkim earthquake have seen the armed forces as first responders  [2]  . 3. In Indian context it is unlikely that the local civil administration will have the resources available immediately to deal with a major disaster such as the earthquake that occurred in Gujarat in 2001 or the Tsunami of 2004. Therefore, it is essential that the state governments prepare detail disaster management plans and keep the resources in terms of men and material ready for use at short notice. There is a need for civil administration at the district and state levels to organise disaster relief cells with a pool of reserve. At present due to the inability of local administration to deal with natural calamities, armed forces are invariably employed for disaster relief. 4. In spite of breakdown of communications and the absence of a major strength of troops and resources, the response of the armed forces has always been prompt and won the respect of all concerned. The mainstay and strength of the Armed forces vis-à  -vis civilian organisations has been the sense of discipline, training to respond to orders, adaptability, selfless dedication to the cause, genuine concern and focused action. These factors have always resulted in many individuals and NGOs wanting to route assistance through the Armed forces. Seeing the good work being done by the Armed forces, the government organisations, NGOs and civil agencies then join in the relief effort. This generates a spirit of cooperation. The mere presence of Armed forces troops instils a sense of security and gives solace to the affected people  [3]  . Disaster Response Activities 5. Disaster management, which involves assessment and response, can be seen in various activities. The following are various activities of emergency response. Warning. Search and Rescue. Evacuation and Migration. Response and Relief. Logistics and Supply. Communication and Information Management. Rehabilitation. Post-Disaster Assessment  [4]  . 6. Natural calamities impart lessons at a huge cost of life and property. But if these lessons do not lead us to learning, then the cost will seem even heavier. At the time recurrence of disaster, the failure to learn from the previous incidents hurts the most. The massive earthquake in Gujarat and the subsequent chaos were indicators of how important prior planning is in managing relief and rehabilitation during various disasters. The Kutchh region required massive immediate assistance , however civil administration was unprepared for such crisis. Indian armed forces were employed for the relief from the begining. This made the need for a proper disaster mitigation plan very apparent. Learning from experience is essential in building a knowledge resource which would help in being better prepared in the future. CHAPTER II METHODOLOGY 1. Hypothesis. A common thread in a countrys response to disaster situation is military support to civilian authorities. India disaster relief mechanism in the present form lacks the required synergy between civil and military organisations to facilitate a synergised response. 2. Statement of Problem. The civil administration often falls back on the armed forces for assistance in crisis situations. Efficient disaster management mechanism, therefore, should incorporate the armed forces at each stage. The formulated plans should specify the assistance likely to be required in disaster situations. The most efficient system will be to have seamless integration in operations, with an aim of core competency areas of each establishment giving its best in least time. The aim of the study is to examine the disaster relief mechanism existing in the country and analyze the interplay of various organizations in handling the disaster situation. Justification for the Study 3. Over the past few years, the Government has introduced a paradigm shift in the approach to disasters. Corner stone of this approach is the realisation that disaster management has to be multi-disciplinary and spanning across all the sectors of development. As calamities evoke extraordinary response, the civil authoritys reliance on the Armed Forces has also ever increased. Due to their quick response, Armed forces have become a mantra in the hands of the state to respond to such calamities spanning from Law and Order problems to large scale disasters. Despite our country being extremely vulnerable and prone to natural calamities, no detailed hazard and vulnerability assessments have been carried out either at the State or the National level  [5]  . 4. Is the country adequately prepared with infrastructure and strategy against various natural disasters? There are differences of opinion on this issue. According to some, there are certain limitations, but overall, the country is well equipped. Others, however point out that the country does not have detailed vulnerability assessments, forcing it to only respond to calamities and organise reconstruction  [6]  . It is in this context that this study assumes greater importance. It will analyse various facets of disaster preparedness, evaluate existing structures for disasters management and put forward its recommendations. 5. For the purpose of this study disasters related to war, civil disturbance and slow disasters (Like crop failure, famine etc) will be kept out. Natural disasters (Like floods, earthquake etc) and the response of armed forces in helping civil administration would be the focus of the study. The study is basically confined to the role of Armed forces, to include Air Force and Navy in providing assistance to the civil authorities in all natural calamities. 6. Method of Data Collection. Data and information has been collected from Military Papers, periodicals, newspapers and books. Disaster management setup of the country has been derived from NDMA 2005 Ministry of Home Affairs documents on disaster management. 7. Organisation of the Dissertation. The research paper is covered under the following Chapters :- (a) Introduction. (b) Methodology. (c) National policy on disaster management. (d) Role of armed forces. (e) International disaster relief system. (f) Current concerns and recommendations. CHAPTER III NATIONAL POLICY ON DISASTER MANAGEMENT As of now, the government has no concrete disaster management policy. Many disasters are first created by us and then crores of rupees are spent on rescue and relief operations. The government should focus more on a sustainable model of development which can avoid disasters. Sunder Lal Bhauguna 1. Evolution of Disaster Management in India. Disaster management in India has evolved from an activity-based reactive setup to a proactive institutionalized structure; from single faculty domain to a multi-stakeholder setup; and from a relief-based approach to a multi-dimensional pro-active holistic approach for reducing risk. The beginnings of an institutional structure for disaster management can be traced to the British period following the series of disasters such as famines of 1900, 1905, 1907 1943, and the Bihar-Nepal earthquake of 1937. Over the past century, the disaster management in India has undergone substantive changes in its composition, nature and policy  [7]  . 2. Emergence of Institutional Arrangement in India. A permanent and institutionalised setup began in the decade of 1990s with set up of a disaster management cell under the Ministry of Agriculture, following the declaration of the decade of1990 as the International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR) by the UN General Assembly. Following series of disasters such as Latur Earthquake (1993), Malpa Landslide (1994),Orissa Super Cyclone (1999) and Bhuj Earthquake (2001), a high powered Committee under the Chairmanship of Mr. J.C. Pant, Secretary, Ministry of Agriculture was constituted for drawing up a systematic, comprehensive and holistic approach towards disasters  [8]  . There was a shift in policy from an approach of relief through financial aid to a holistic one for addressing disaster management. Consequently, the disaster management division was shifted under the Ministry of Home Affairs in 2002 and a hierarchical structure for disaster management evolved in India2. Organisation and Structure of Disaster Management 3. Disaster management division is headed by Joint Secretary in ministry of home affairs, who is assisted by three Directors, Under Secretaries, Section Officers, Technical Officer, Senior Economic Investigator consultants and other supporting staff. The upper echelon of the structure also consists of Secretary (Border Management), Home Secretary, Minister of State in charge and the Home Minister. 4. Shifting from the relief and response mode, disaster management structure in India started to address the issues of early warning systems, forecasting and monitoring setup for various weather related hazards. A structure for flow of information, in the form of warnings, alerts and updates about the oncoming hazard, also emerged in this framework. A high powered group was setup by involving representatives of different ministries and departments. Some of these ministries were also designated as nodal authorities for specific disasters3. Disaster Management Act, 2005 5. This Act provides for the effective management of disasters in the country. NDMA provides institutional mechanisms for formulating and monitoring the implementation of the disaster management. It also ensures measures by the various branches of the Government for prevention and mitigation of disasters and prompt response during any disaster situation. The Act provides for setting up of National Disaster Management Authority under Chairmanship of the Prime Minister, State Disaster Management Authorities under the Chairmanship of the Chief Ministers, District Disaster Management Authorities under the Chairmanship of Collectors/District Magistrates/Deputy Commissioners. 6. The Act further provides for the constitution of different Executive Committee at national and state levels. Under its aegis, the National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM) for capacity building and National Disaster Response Force (NDRF) for response purpose have been set up. It also mandates the concerned Ministries and Departments to draw up their own plans in accordance with the National Plan. The Act further contains the provisions for financial mechanisms such as creation of funds for response, National Disaster Mitigation Fund and similar funds at the state and district levels for the purpose of disaster management. The Act also provides specific roles to local bodies in disaster management4. National Level Institutions 7. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) was initially constituted on May 30, 2005 under the Chairmanship of Prime Minister. The NDMA has been mandated with laying down policies on disaster management and guidelines which would be followed by different ministries, departments of central government and state government in taking measures for disaster risk reduction. It has also laid down guidelines to be followed by the state government authorities in drawing up the State Plans and to take such measures for the management of disasters, Details of these responsibilities are given as under :- (a) Lay down policies on disaster management. (b) Approve the National Plan. (c) Approve plans prepared by various ministries or departments of the government of India in accordance with the National Plan for disaster management. (d) Lay down guidelines for the State Authorities in drawing up the State Plan. (e) Lay down guidelines for the different ministries or departments of the government for the purpose of integrating the measures for prevention of disasters and the mitigation of their effects in their development plans projects. (f) Coordinate the implementation of the policy and plan for disaster management within the country. (g) Recommend provision of funds for the purpose of disaster mitigation. (h) Provide support to other countries affected by disasters on the recommendation of Central Government. (j) Take other measures for the prevention of disaster, mitigation, preparedness and capacity building for dealing with the disaster situation . (k) Lay down policies and guidelines for functioning of the National Institute for Disaster Management  [9]  . 8. Composition of NDMA. Besides the nine members nominated by the Prime Minister, Chairperson of the Authority, the Organisational structure consists of a Secretary and five Joint Secretaries including one Financial Advisor. There are 10 posts of Joint Advisors and Directors, 14 Assistant Advisors, Under Secretaries and Assistant Financial Advisor and Duty Officer along with supporting staff  [10]  . 9. State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA). The Disaster Management Act, 2005 provides for constitution of SDMAs in all the states and UTs. The Act envisages establishment of State Executive Committee, to be headed by Chief Secretary of the state Government with four other Secretaries of such departments as the state Government may think fit. It has the responsibility for coordinating and monitoring the implementation of the National Policy, the National Plan and the State Plan. 10. District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA). NDMA provides for constitution of DDMA for every district of a state. The District Magistrate/ District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the Authority as Chairperson besides an elected representative of the local authority as Co-Chairperson. The District Authority is responsible for planning, coordination and implementation of disaster management and to take such measures for disaster management as provided in the guidelines. The District Authority also has the power to examine the construction in any area in the district to enforce the safety standards and also to arrange for relief measures and respond to the disaster at the district level. 11. National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM). In the backdrop of the International decade of Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), a National centre of disaster management has been established at the Indian Institute for Public Administration in 1995. The Centre was subsequently upgraded and designated as the National Institute of Disaster management on 16th October 2003. Disaster management act, 2005 entrusts the institute with various responsibilities, such as to develop the training modules, undertake research and documentation for disaster management, organise the training programmes, organise study courses, conferences, and seminars to promote disaster management. It is also responsible for publication of journals, research papers and books on disaster management  [11]  . 12. National Disaster Response Force. The National Disaster Response Force has been constituted under Disaster management act, 2005 by up-gradation/conversion of eight standard battalions of central para military forces i.e. two battalions each from Border Security Force, Indo-Tibetan Border Police, Central Industrial Security Force and Central Reserve Police Force to build them up as a specialist force to respond to disaster or disaster like situations. 13. The eight battalions of NDRF consist of 144 specialised teams trained in various types of natural, manmade and non-natural disasters.72 of such teams are designed to cater to the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear(CBRN) calamities besides natural calamities. Each NDRF battalion consists of 1149 personnel organised in 18 teams comprising of 45 personnel, who are being equipped and trained for rendering effective response to any disaster situation, both natural and manmade. All these eight battalions are being trained in natural disasters while four of them are being additionally trained for handling CBRN disasters. Based on vulnerability profile of different regions of the country, these specialist battalions have been presently stationed at the following eight places:- Bhatinda. Gr. Noida. Vadodara. Pune (talegaon). Bhubaneshwar (mundali). Kolkata. Guwahati. Patna. Chennai (Arakkonam).  [12]   14. The Government of India has approved the raising of two additional battalions of National Disaster Response Force by up gradation and conversion of one battalion each of Border Security Force and Central Reserve Police Force to be located in the states of Bihar (Bihata, Patna) and Andhra Pradesh (Vijaywada) respectively. The administrative approval for raising the two battalions was issued on 13-10- 2010  [13]  . 15. State Disaster Response Force. The states/UTs have also been advised to set up their Specialist Response Force for responding to disasters on the lines of National Disaster Response Force by the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Central Government is providing assistance for training of trainers. The state governments have been also advised to utilise 10 percent of their State Disaster Response Fund and Capacity Building Grant for procuring the search and rescue equipment and for training purposes of the Response Force  [14]  . Civil Defence 16. Role of Civil Defence. During times of emergencies, the CD organisation has the vital role of mobilising the citizens and helping civil administration for saving life and property, minimising damage, and raising public morale. 225 towns have been nominated as CD towns. 17. Each town has nucleus of four Permanent Staff along with 400 CD Volunteers for a two lakh population. It is expected that each state will have one CD Training Institute with permanent strength of 36 personnel, five vehicles and other equipments. The District Magistrate is designated as a Controller for CD Towns. The present strength of CD volunteers is 5.72 lakhs, out of which 5.11 lakhs are already trained. The target strength of CD volunteers has been fixed at 13 lakhs based on the population of CD towns as per 2001 census  [15]  . National Crisis Management 18. For effective implementation of necessary relief measures in the wake of a natural disaster, the Cabinet has established a Committee. On the constitution of this committee of the cabinet, the concerned Secretary will provide all the necessary information and data to and seek directions of the cabinet committee in all the matters concerning disaster relief. In the absence of this cabinet Committee, all matters relating to disaster relief will be reported to the Cabinet Secretary. 19. National Crisis Management Committee. A National Crisis Management Committee (NCMC) has been constituted in the Cabinet Secretariat. The composition of the Committee is as under  [16]  :- (a) Cabinet Secretary Chairman. (b) Secretary to Prime Minister Member. (c) Secretary (MHA) Member. (d) Secretary (MOD) Member. (e) Director (IB) Member. (f) Secretary (RAW) Member. (g) Secretary (Agriculture) Co-opted Member. (h) An Officer of Cabinet Secretariat Convener. 20. Calamities Relief Fund. The government has earmarked two funds i.e. Calamities Relief Fund and National Fund for Calamities. The nodal agency for recommending release of these two funds is the Crisis Management Group in the Ministry of Agriculture, which is headed by Central Relief Commissioner. The allocation for the all the states under these funds is done by the Finance Commission for a duration of five years, based on the vulnerability of the states to Natural calamities and average expenditure. National Fund for Calamities is additional fund besides Calamities Relief Fund ; while 75 percent of CRF is contributed by the centre, the allocation under National Fund for Calamities is entirely by the centre and more or less discretionary  [17]  . Forecasting Warning 21. Forecasting about climate change is pre requisite for taking preparedness measure to respond to the disaster is the most important element of disaster management. The Ministry of Environment Forest , Ministry of Earth Sciences , Ministry of Science Technology, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Water Resources, Ministry of Human Resource Development, Ministry of Non-conventional Energy, Defence Research Development Organization, Ministry of Defence, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Indian Space Research Organization and Indian Meteorological Department promote and undertake climate and climate change related research in the country  [18]  . (a) Atmosphere Watch Stations. A network of 10 Global Atmosphere Watch Stations consisting of Allahabad, Jodhpur, Kodaikanal, Minicoy, Mohanbari, Port Blair, Pune, Nagpur, Srinagar and Vishakhapatnam, is maintained by IMD as per WMO protocols and standards since 1974 to generate data and information on the exchange of trace materials between the atmosphere and the earths surface, making atmospheric turbidity and air quality measurements to quantify trends and acid rain threats. (b) Atmospheric monitoring. There are 25 types of atmospheric monitoring networks that are operated and coordinated by the IMD. This includes meteorological, climatologically, environment, air pollution and other specialized observation of atmospheric trace constituents. (c) Cyclone Warning. The IMD has established an observation network for detecting cyclones through 10 cyclone detection radars along the coasts. The detection range of these radars is 400 km. INSAT-1B satellite also monitors cyclonic movements. Ships and commercial radars are also utilized for cyclonic warnings. About 260 merchant ships have meteorological observation systems. (d) Flood Forecast. The Ministry of water resources has an effective flood forecast system with 157 flood forecasting centres covering 62 river basins. Along with IMD, they monitor rainfall water levels in the reservoirs. India has also developed radars which give accurate estimate of rainfall up to 200 km around the radar site. (e) Tsunami warning. Post tsunami dated 26th December, 2004, Ministry of Earth Sciences has established the Indian National Tsunami Warning System at Indian National Centre for Ocean Information Services (INCOIS), Hyderabad. The Tsunami Early Warning System (TEWS) was made operational on 15th Oct 2007. This agency has developed a protocol for issue for Tsunami Watch, Alert and Warnings. The Centre gives information to all responders about the origin, time, location of the epicentre, magnitude and depth of an earthquake inside the ocean and accordingly issues bulletins. (f) Avalanche Warning. DRDOs network of more than fifty laboratories is deeply engaged in developing Defence technologies. Centre for Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE) is one of the laboratories of the DRDO located at Chandigarh with its primary function to do research in the field of snow and avalanches and to provide avalanche control measures and forecasting support to Armed forces. Role of Voluntary Organisations 22. The role of voluntary organisations is to help people overcome the problems created by natural calamities by providing relief services to the people. They also works as the eyes and ears by acting as the intermediary between the masses and the government agencies to avoid duplication, ensure proper distribution of resources and organise vigilance groups for preventing of misuse of resources. 23. Some of the activities under taken by voluntary organisations are:- (a) Establishing free food distribution centres, distributing blankets, clothes and medicines to prevent epidemics. (b) Organising necessary relief camps, first aid centres, and immunisation camps. (c) Organisation relief teams and sending them to far-flung affected areas to provide relief and monitor relief programmes. (d) Organising awareness programmes about different relief activities initiated by Government and Non Government Organisations. (e) Generating employment opportunities in the affected areas. (f) Adoption of families of the affected areas. CHAPTER IV ROLE OF ARMED FORCES 1. The armed forces of any nation are probably best organised to provide support for establishing a various of public services like public works, communications, transport, medical services, search rescue, and support activities. They are able to react quickly in a self contained, self sufficient and mobile fashion. Armed forces personnel are well trained in the skills necessary to perform their professional activities and can function under an integrated / flexible management system. So there is an enormous potential inherent in them to provide enormous capability to restore emergency services. 2. During the natural calamities, when many parts of the country are affected by them and it is beyond the capability of local administration to organise the rescue and relief, armed forces may be called upon to provide / organise relief measures. Armed Forces may also be called upon to provide assistance to other friendly countries, in case this has been requested for. One such example is that of Bangladesh. In 1991, when it was hit by worst cyclone in the history of the country the US armed forces, carried out relief operations  [19]  . In addition Indian Air Force also sent six helicopters for airlifting relief material to the affected areas. 3. Each year Armed Forces are called upon on several occasions for rendering assistance to civil administration throughout the nation during monsoon season for providing rescue and relief during the floods. The role of the armed forces during relief, rescue operations after Uttarkashi earthquake, Latur earthquake in Maharashtra, Chamoli earthquake and Floods in Orissa are well known. 4. Assistance Provided by Armed Forces. The Armed Forces may be called upon to render following type of assistance during natural calamities  [20]  :- (a) Infrastructure for Command and Control. (b) Medical Aid. (c) Transportation of Relief Material. (d) Establishment of Relief Camps. (e) Construction and Repair of Roads and Bridges. (f) Maintenance of Essential Services. (g) Evacuation of People to Safer Areas. (h) Stage management of International Relief. 5. Since the civil administration remains ill equipped for undertaking quick response to major disasters, the armed forces has been the primary option. As one of the most dedicated, professional, and modern armed forces in the world, the Indian armed forces respond to any disastrous situation with all their might. It is due to their technical competence, trained manpower, and logistical capabilities that they are always ready to rapidly undertake any kind of disaster-related rescue and relief operations. 6. They are also located in most remote areas where natural calamities are frequent. For instance, when the tsunami hit the Indian coast on December 26, 2004, the Indian armed forces, co-coordinated by the Integrated Defence Staff (IDS), efficiently handled relief, rescue, and evacuation work under Operation Sea Wave, including extending aid to Sri Lanka and Maldives under Operation Rainbow and Operation Castor, respectively. 7. Whether, it was the Kashmir earthquake of 2005, the tropical cyclone in Bangladesh in, 2007, the fire at Burrabazar in Kolkata in 2008, the serial blasts at Bangalore and Ahmedabad in 2008, or the Mumbai attack of November 2008, the roles played by the armed forces are numerous. In August 2010, when Leh, was hit by flash floods which killed many people and left many other injured, the Indian Armed forcess resp

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Essay --

â€Å"Vision without hard work is just dreaming. Hard work without vision is just wasting time but hard work along with vision creates wonders.† This famous saying has been the ‘Divine Force’ throughout my life, helping me to lead the way to a successful track. Right from my childhood I was captivated by the power of electronics that has been influencing human life. I always thought of its possibility and this curiosity motivated me to learn more about the functioning of the electronic devices. The all time fascinating cell phones attracted and created interest in me towards learning the possible ways of communication that takes place with the help of Satellites. The enthusiastic I was eager to know about the concept behind their functioning and in due course of time the basic questions were answered but many new complex questions started haunting me and so is the reason for me to take up Electronics as my stream during the term of under graduation. During my schooling, I had special interest towards Mathematics and Science. The first sense of my achievement came when I stood among the top two students of my school in the Secondary School Examination (10th standard). I secured 92.16 percentage (%) and scored 97 on a scale of 100 in Mathematics. My predilection for Mathematics prompted me to opt Physics, Chemistry and Math, as my major subjects in the Higher Secondary Examination (10+2) where I worked even harder and could complete it with an aggregate of 89.6 Percentage (%) . I always felt that Engineering would be the right area for me to survey, learn and understand the fundamentals of science in order to create and enhance even the petty aspects of technology and sue for its application both in practical and real purposes. So I had... ...truly shape myself into a professional to reach your standards. It is my desire rather than coincidence that I apply to your university and I believe that I would be a suitable applicant for Research work in the university since I’ve always been inclined towards practical tasks and also exhibits the everlasting quest to learn more all the time. In return, I assure that the university will find me a student, who would contribute to the excellent track record. My admission to your university will provide me to move towards my career objectives. I can perform to my best and meet the high standards set by your university. I request you kindly to consider me for any form of financial assistance, as it would be of great help to me. In an anticipation that you would consider my request so as to pursue my higher education in a well equipped and reputed University as yours.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Sex and Gender Essay -- Anatomy Papers

Sex and Gender Arianna Stassinopoulos wrote in the 1973 book The Female Woman: "It would be futile to attempt to fit women into a masculine pattern of attitudes, skills and abilities and disastrous to force them to suppress their specifically female characteristics and abilities by keeping up the pretense that there are no differences between the sexes" (Microsoft Bookshelf). In her statement we see a cultural feminist response to the dominant liberal feminism of the 1970s. Liberal feminism de-emphasized gender differences, claiming that women were the equals of men and that this would be obvious if only they were offered the same opportunities as men with no special privileges necessary. On the other hand, cultural feminists such as Stassinopoulos claimed that women's unique perspective and talents must be valued, intentionally emphasizing the differences between men and women. A third type of feminism, post-modernism, is represented in Sexing the Body by Anne Fausto-Sterling. Post-modern feminism questions the very origins of gender, sexuality, and bodies. According to post-modernism, the emphasis or de-emphasis of difference by cultural and liberal feminists is meaningless, because the difference itself and the categories difference creates are social constructions. Fausto-Sterling's post-modernism, however, depicts this social construction in a unique manner; she attempts to illustrate the role of science in the construction of gender, sex, and bodies. In doing so she discusses three main ways in which science aids in the social construction of sex: first, new surgical technology allows doctors to literally construct genitalia; second, socially accepted biases aff ect the way scientists design, carry out, and analyze ex... ...heories of performing gender to make this point, Fausto-Sterling is able to point to concrete scientific experiments and explain where they go wrong. And one can conclude from Fausto-Sterling's book that not only do we "do" gender, we also "do" sex and bodies as well. Works Cited Butler, Judith. "Performative acts and gender constitution: An essay in phenomenology and feminist theory." 1998. Excerpt from K. Conboy, N. Medina and S. Stanbury, eds. Writing on the Body: Female Embodiment and Feminist Theory (401-17). NY: Columbia University Press, 1997. Fausto-Sterling, Anne. Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. NY: Basic Books, 2000. Stassinopoulos, Arianna. "The Natural Woman." Sexing the Body: Gender Politics and the Construction of Sexuality. Entry found under "gender." Microsoft Bookshelf 2000. CD-ROM. 2000.

Barn Burning Essay -- essays papers

Barn Burning Throughout the story â€Å"Barn Burning†, author William Faulkner conveys the moral growth and development of a young boy, as he must make a critical decision between either choosing his family and their teachings or his own morals and values. The reader should realize that the story â€Å"Barn Burning† was written in the 1930’s, a time of economic, social, and cultural turmoil. Faulkner carries these themes of despair into the story of the Snopes family. Faulkner opens the story, â€Å"Barn Burning† in a southern courthouse room of the during the Civil War reconstruction era, also a time of social, cultural, and economic instability. At this point in the story the main characters, Abner (Ab) and his son, Colonel Sartoris Snopes (Sarty) are introduced. Ab is on trial for the malicious burning of a barn that was owned by a wealthy local farmer. For Sarty’s entire life he and his family had been living in poverty. His father, who had always been jealous of â€Å"the good life†, takes his frustrations out against the post-Civil war aristocracy by burning the barns of wealthy farmers. As most fathers do, Ab makes the attempt to pass his traits and beliefs on to his son, whom does not necessarily agree nor fully understand his father’s standpoint. The following passage is an example of how Sarty is taught that both legal justice and wealth is the enemy of his family: He could not see the table where the Justice sat and before which his father and his father’s enemy (our enemy he thought in that despair; ourn! Mine and hisn both! He’s my father!) stood, but he could not hear them, the two of them that is, because his father had said no word yet. After the Justice had declared that there was not a substantial amo... ...cept the end of man†¦ I believe that man will not merely endure: he will prevail. He is immortal, not because he alone among creatures has an inexhaustible voice, but because he has a soul, a spirit capable of compassion and sacrifice and endurance.† I believe that Faulkner displayed this belief throughout this story. He shows that Sarty is a â€Å"soul† that is compassionate when he mourns his father in the last few paragraphs of the story. He exemplifies sacrifice when Sarty must sacrifice the safety and lives of his family members for his own morals. Finally, Faulkner conveys endurance when the child comes to the realization that he may not return to the surviving members of his family, and that he must continue to live on his own. Bibliography: Works Cited Meyer, M., Ed., (1999). The Bedford Introduction to Literature, 5th Ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin.